Conservative treatments such as rest, ice, and physical therapy —sometimes are all that's needed to recover from a rotator cuff injury. If your injury is severe and involves a complete tear of the muscle or tendon, you might need surgery.
Injections- If conservative treatments haven't reduced your pain, your doctor might recommend a steroid injection into your shoulder joint, especially if the pain is interfering with your sleep, daily activities, or exercise. While such shots are often temporarily helpful, they should be used judiciously, as they can contribute to the weakening of the tendon.
Surgery - Many different types of surgeries are available for rotator cuff injuries, including:
· Arthroscopic tendon repair. In this procedure, surgeons insert a tiny camera (arthroscope) and tools through small incisions to reattach the torn tendon to the bone.
· Open tendon repair. In some situations, an open tendon repair may be a better option. In these types of surgeries, your surgeon works through a larger incision to reattach the damaged tendon to the bone. Compared to arthroscopic procedures, open tendon repairs typically heal in the same length of time but recovery may be more uncomfortable.
· Tendon transfer. If the torn tendon is too damaged to be reattached to the arm bone, surgeons may decide to use a nearby tendon as a replacement.
· Shoulder replacement. Massive rotator cuff injuries may require shoulder replacement surgery. To improve the artificial joint's stability, an innovative procedure (reverse shoulder arthroplasty) installs the ball part of the artificial joint onto the shoulder blade and the socket part onto the arm bone.
Physical therapy management:
Goals to be achieved with physical therapy:
· Reducing pain and muscle tension in the scapular and neck area in order to promote the motility of the scapula.
· Improving the wrong humeral head position in order to restore scapulohumeral mobility.
· Strengthen the muscles that stabilize and move the shoulder, the upper part of the M.
· Serratus anterior and the intact rotator cuff muscles.
· Regain proprioception and movement automatism by neuromotor rehabilitation
· Both non-operative rehabilitation and postoperative rehabilitation of the rotator cuff involves the following principles.
· Reduction of overload and total arm rehabilitation
· There should be no compensatory actions in the upper extremity.
· It is advised to quickly use the elbow, forearm, and wrist in order to strengthen them, especially during long immobilization.
· Mobilization of the scapulothoracic joint and submaximal strengthening of the scapular stabilizers are indicated. The injured tissues should not be inappropriately stressed or loaded.
· A technique which is used early in the rehabilitation phase is the scapular protraction and retraction resistance exercise. It involves a side-lying position and specific hand placement to resist scapular protraction and retraction without stress applied on the glenohumeral joint.
· This exercise begins at low resistance. The glenohumeral joint must be in slight abduction and forward flexion during scapular motion.
· Restoration of normal joint arthrokinematics
· Posterior capsular mobilization and stretching techniques are often indicated and applied to improve internal rotation ROM.
· Promotion of muscular strength balance and local muscular endurance