Medical management: Anti-inflammatory pain medications reduce pain and fight swelling. Over-the-counter drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen work for most people.
Surgical management: Surgery for sprained ankles is rare. It may be performed when the damage to the ligaments is severe and there is evidence of instability, or when the injury doesn’t improve with nonsurgical treatment. Surgical options include:
Arthroscopy: During an arthroscopy, a surgeon looks inside the joint to see if there are any loose fragments of bone or cartilage.
- Reconstruction: For reconstruction surgery, a surgeon will repair the torn ligament with stitches. They may also use other ligaments or tendons around the foot or ankle to repair the damaged ligaments.
Physical therapy: Physiotherapy is required with functional therapy of the ankle shown to be more efficient than immobilisation. Functional therapy treatment can be divided in 4 stages, moving onto to the next stage as tissue healing allows
1. Inflammatory phase,
2. Proliferative phase,
3. Early Remodelling,
4. Late Maturation and Remodelling.
Inflammatory phase (0 to 3): The goal is to reduce pain and swelling and improve circulation and partial foot support.
The most common approach to manage ankle sprain is the price protocol. Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
Proliferative phase (4 to 10 days): The goal is to recover the function of ankle and foot and improve load carrying capacity.
· Patient education
· Practice foot and ankle functions
· Apply tape as soon as swelling has decreased.
Early remodeling (11 to 21 days): The goal is to improve muscle strength, active (functional) stability, mobility. Practice balance, muscle strength.
Late remodeling and maturation: The goal is to improve regional load-carrying capacity, walking skills , improve the skills needed during activities of daily living as well as work and sports.