Cryotherapy helps to reduce localized and systemic inflammation which is found to be effective inpatient suffering from PD.
Thermotherapy produces body heating that improves muscle performance and helps to achieve full movement.
Range of motion exercises:
Range of motion exercises helps to maintain health and well-being in Parkinson’s by increasing strength, endurance, flexibility, functional practice, and balance.
Aerobic exercises are found to slow down motor skill degeneration and depression.
Stretching and flexibility:
Parkinson’s disease patients usually develop tight flexors, hamstring muscles, and calf muscles. To treat this stiffness stretching at frequent intervals is done throughout the day.
Strengthening exercises include exercises that are done against an external resistance such as cycle ergometer, weight machines, therapeutic putty, elastic and, weight cuffs.
Dual-task training with motor cognitive dual-task training helps improve dual-task ability, and also improves cognition, balance, and gait e.g talking while walking, which is commonly difficult in patients with Parkinson’s.
Movement Strategy Training:
Movement strategy training includes physical or attentional cues and combined strategies that help to train improvements in movement. Movement strategies take the form of cued functional and dual-task training. Compensatory strategy training uses self-instruction, external cues, and attention such as:
It uses a focus point to step over and initiate gait like strips of tape on the floor are used to initiate or continue walking through areas that cause freezing or slowing.
Auditory cueing involves continuing 1-2-3 to initiate walking and stepping to the beat of specific music at a specified cadence to continue the rhythm of walking.
Attention cueing is initiated by making the patient think about taking a big step and making a wider arc turn. This is applicable in case of correcting trick movements like walking with stuff hip or hip hiking.
Proprioceptive cueing involves rocking from side to side, ready to initiate a step taking one step backward as a cue ready to then walk forwards.