Cast and braces are used to hold the ends of the bone together in position. During recovery, the knee is immobilized with a brace. Knee braces can also be used if the patient suffers from chronic stiffness or weakness in the joint, a knee brace can be continued for support. It helps to stand and move around with more confidence.
Cryotherapy involves the direct application of ice covered with plastic or cloth kept over the knee joint for around 30 minutes, two to three times a day.
Thermotherapy or moist heat is applied to the knee joint, its increases blood circulation.
Assistive devices including, a wheelchair, crutches, cane, or walker can be used for support.
Ultrasound therapy helps to break the adhesions and thus increases the range of motion and decreases pain.
Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS):
TENS is used to reduce pain and swelling in the knee. And also helps to improve the strength of the muscle.
Laser therapy (LLLT):
Laser therapy enhances the healing process and accelerates callus formation.
Range of motion exercises:
Simple range of motion exercises are done in the pain-free range to increase joint movement such as knee flexion, knee extension, SLR, etc.
Stretching and Strengthening Exercises:
Stretching exercises are done to achieve more range of motion and flexibility. Strengthening exercises include isometrics, isotonic, isokinetic exercises for quadriceps, hamstring, adductor, abductor, gluteal, ankle muscles, etc. Progressed to resisted exercises with therabands and weights.
Weight-bearing exercise is initially limited to gently touching the floor with the toe, with the help of a walker, crutches, or cane. As the knee heals, the muscles strengthen, and gradually more weight is put on the leg.
Balance and proprioception exercises:
Balance and proprioception exercises can be done with a bobath ball or on a wobble board.