Rest and staying off the feet for a while is recommended to enhance the process of healing by decreasing the movement of the knee joint.
A knee brace provides extra support for the patients having damaged ACL while running or playing sports.
Bandaging can be done to decrease the swelling in or around the knee joint by wrapping an ace bandage around the knee.
Elevation of the affected limb also decreases swelling and edema. The patient is made to lie down with the knee propped up on pillows.
Ice packs may be used to decrease swelling. Ice is applied on the knee at least every two hours for 20 minutes at a time.
Transcutaneous electrical stimulations (TENS):
Transcutaneous electrical stimulations (TENS) help to decrease knee pain and knee swelling.
NMES is given to improve the strength of quadriceps muscles and to regain normal quadriceps control.
This therapy uses red and infrared light for the relief of pain, accelerates the process of healing, and decreases inflammation. The light source is placed against the skin, then the photons penetrate several centimeters and get absorbed by the mitochondria, which is the energy-producing part of the cell.
Shockwave therapy is highly effective in ACL tear, it enhances the process of healing and results in early recovery.
Gait training is given with help of assistive devices like crutches, and progressed from walking with crutches to walking normally with no assistive device. Crutches can help to keep weight off the knee.
Range of motion exercises:
Pain and swelling in the knee can limit the knee's range of motion. Simple range of motion exercises can be done to help improve and normalize knee mobility like prone hang.
Strengthening exercises are used to strengthen the quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip muscles e.g like isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic exercises can be done to strengthen the muscles.
After an ACL tear, the patient has difficulty maintaining appropriate balance on the injured leg. For balance training wobble board or a BAPS board may be used to regain normal proprioception, or body awareness, after the injury.
Plyometrics helps to return to high-level sports. Plyometric training helps to learn to properly jump and land and regain the confidence needed to return to athletics.