Have you ever had hip, knee, or back pain? Because of this, you lack a normal walking pattern. Then you need to understand about gait cycle. Today in this blog, we will discuss gait, how gait problems can create a vicious cycle of chronic pain, and how you can improve your gait to enhance your well-being.

Gait is the way the person walks, how he moves his limbs to get from one place to another. The gait cycle has 7 stages. And these stages should occur in succession with each other. 
The body muscles should work to counteract the external force of the body weight connecting with the ground, the steps should be even, and the length of each step should be appropriate for the height and weight.
Normal gait requires good coordination because, for a brief moment between each step, the weight rests solely on one leg. It happens so fast that the person may not notice it, but while one leg swings forward, the other leg is holding the person up. If the gait is normal, the person won't feel like he is losing his balance when this happens. Similarly, with a normal gait, the person should be able to walk on a flat surface, with ease, and not have to think about how to place each step.

Gait Abnormalities:
Any abnormality in gait causes deviation from a normal walking pattern, which can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions. Common symptoms of gait abnormalities include limping, difficulty walking, pain in the legs or feet, and a decrease in overall mobility. Gait abnormalities can be caused by injuries, neurological disorders, degenerative diseases, and other underlying health conditions. Early identification and treatment of gait abnormalities are crucial to prevent further deterioration of mobility and improve the overall quality of life. Physiotherapy, orthotic devices, and surgery are some of the common treatment options for gait abnormalities.
Pathological gait can be caused by a wide range of conditions, such as neurological disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and certain medical conditions, such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and peripheral neuropathy.

Hemiplegic Gait
Hemiplegic gait is a type of gait disorder that occurs in individuals who have suffered a stroke or brain injury. The gait is characterized by weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, leading to an uneven, shuffling, or dragging type of walk. This can also lead to difficulty with balance and coordination. Physiotherapy and other forms of rehabilitation can help improve hemiplegic gait, but the degree of improvement depends on the extent of the brain injury or stroke.

Diplegic Gait (Spastic Gait)
Diplegic gait is a type of gait disorder characterized by spasticity (stiffness and tightness) in the muscles of the legs, typically caused by damage to the brain or spinal cord. This can result in a "scissor gait" where the legs cross over each other while walking, as well as difficulty with balance and coordination. Diplegic gait is commonly seen in individuals with cerebral palsy, a neurological disorder that affects muscle control and movement. Cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder that affects muscle tone, movement, and coordination. Individuals with cerebral palsy may have difficulty with balance and coordination, leading to a characteristic "spastic" gait. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications, and surgery to help improve muscle function and mobility.

Neuropathic Gait (Steppage Gait, Equine Gait)
Neuropathic gait refers to changes in walking patterns and movements caused by damage or disease to the nervous system. This can include conditions such as peripheral neuropathy, which affects the nerves in the limbs, or spinal cord injury, which can disrupt the communication between the brain and the rest of the body. Some common signs of neuropathic gait include foot drop, in which the foot drags on the ground while walking, and a high-stepping gait, in which the affected limb is lifted higher than normal to clear the ground. Other symptoms can include muscle weakness, balance problems, and muscle spasms. Unilateral, causes include L5 radiculopathy and peroneal nerve palsy and L5 radiculopathy, whereas bilateral, causes include Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and other peripheral neuropathies including those associated with uncontrolled diabetes. Peripheral neuropathy affects the peripheral nerves and can lead to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the feet, making it difficult to walk. Treatment for neuropathic gait may include physiotherapy, orthotic devices, and medications to manage pain and other symptoms.

Myopathic Gait (Waddling Gait)
A myopathic gait is a walking pattern that is characteristic of individuals with muscle disorders, such as myopathies. Myopathic gait can be characterized by muscle weakness, difficulty initiating movement, foot drop, and a high-stepping or cane-like gait. The gait abnormalities seen in myopathies are caused by the abnormal structure, function, or metabolism of muscle fibers. Physiotherapy and assistive devices such as canes or braces can help improve gait and mobility in individuals with myopathies.

Choreiform Gait (Hyperkinetic Gait)
Choreiform gait is a type of abnormal movement disorder characterized by irregular, jerky, or unpredictable movements of the limbs and trunk. It is often seen in patients with Huntington's disease, a genetic disorder that affects the brain and central nervous system. Other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and dystonia can also cause choreiform gait. It is typically diagnosed through physical examination and neurologic testing. Treatment options may include medication, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy.

Ataxic Gait(Cerebellar)
Ataxic gait is commonly seen in cerebellar disease, this gait is characterized by clumsy, staggering movements with a wide-based gait. While standing, the patient's body may swagger back and forth and from side to side, known as titubation. Patients are not able to walk from heel to toe or in a straight line and have a gait of acute alcohol intoxication that resembles the gait of cerebellar disease (ataxic gait).
Ataxic gait, also known as an unsteady gait, is a type of walking pattern characterized by a lack of coordination and balance. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system and individuals with MS may have an ataxic gait.

Parkinsonian Gait (Festinating Gait, Propulsive Gait)
Parkinson's disease is a progressive condition of the nervous system that affects the body's movement. Individuals with Parkinson's may have difficulty with initiating movement, leading to a characteristic "shuffling" gait. They may also experience freezing of gait, where they are unable to move their feet despite the intention to walk.
Parkinsonian gait refers to the distinctive way of walking that is commonly seen in individuals with Parkinson's disease. This type of gait is characterized by several features, including small, shuffling steps, a tendency to take shorter steps than normal, a stooped posture, and a decreased arm swing. These symptoms are caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, which leads to a loss of muscle control and coordination. Treatment for Parkinsonian gait typically involves the use of medications such as levodopa and dopamine agonists, as well as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and deep brain stimulation.

Sensory Gait
Sensory gait refers to how the nervous system processes and uses sensory information from the environment to control and coordinate movement during walking or running. This can include information from the eyes, ears, proprioceptors (sensors in the joints and muscles), and skin receptors. Sensory gait can be affected by various neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, peripheral neuropathies, and other conditions that affect the nervous system.
Gait pathologies can greatly impact an individual's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities. Physiotherapy, 0ccupational therapy, and medication can help to improve symptoms and may allow individuals to regain some of their mobility.
It is important to consult a physiotherapist if you suspect you may have a gait pathology. They will be able to perform a thorough examination and may refer you to a specialist for further evaluation and treatment

Abnormal walking patterns can have a variety of causes and can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have an abnormal walking pattern. Physiotherapy, orthotics, and other interventions can help improve gait and reduce the risk of falls and other complications. Regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and stretching can also help prevent abnormal walking patterns from developing. Remember, abnormal walking patterns are not normal, and it's important to take them seriously and address them as soon as possible.